DR A QURESHI, MBChB,MD,FRCP  
  Endocrinologist | Diabetes Consultant | Harley Street Clinic

 

  13-14 Devonshire Street London W1G 7AE Tel: ++44 (0)7733 595 617  
 

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Diabetes

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DIABETES  

APPOINTMENTS :   ++44 (0)7733  595 617

Type 1 diabetes

Who it affects
Type 1 diabetes, is an illness that predominantly affects young patients. It affects 3-5% of the general population.
 
 
What gland is involved
The pancreas produces little or no insulin in response to glucose. The pancreas is an organ near the liver that produces various enzymes that are used to help digest food and hormones that circulate in the blood.
Symptoms
Patient with type 1 diabetes not uncommonly present very unwell and require hospital admission. Symptoms that these patients may have experienced prior to admission typically include thirst, passing large amounts of urine and weight loss. There may be a family history of type 1 diabetes, autoimmune conditions such as autoimmune hypothyroidism, rheumatoid arthritis or Addison`s disease.

Type 2 diabetes

Diagnosis
Diagnosis is usually made with blood tests and urine tests.
  Who it affects
Type 2 diabetes is an increasingly common disorder and typically affects older patients than type 1 diabetes. The risk of developing type 2 diabetes is increased in overweight and obese patients and there is often a family history of type 2 diabetes.
 
Treatment
Treatment is with insulin replacement. Insulin may be injected 2 or more times a day. Precise regimes are tailored individually. Patient in whom it is indicated, insulin may also be administered through an insulin pump.  
As with all patients with diabetes, it is important that patients with type 1 diabetes maintain a healthy lifestyle.
  What gland is involved
In type 2 diabetes the pancreas produces insufficient insulin to control glucose levels adequately.
Prognosis
In patients with type 1 diabetes, the omission of insulin may be associated with serious ill-health and diabetic ketoacidosis requiring emergency admission to hospital.
 
Poorly controlled diabetes in the longer term may be associated with disorders affecting the eyes, kidneys, nerves and brain. It is therefore important that patients with diabetes attend regular appointments to ensure good control is being achieved and that any complications are being detected and managed appropriately.
Symptoms
Although patients may present as an emergency and very unwell, increasingly patients are being diagnosed whilst relatively well in the community. This may reflect a greater awareness of diabetes and screening in people at increased risk.
Diagnosis
Diagnosis of type 2 diabetes is made with blood tests. Urine tests may also be performed.
Treatment
The basis for treatment of type 2 diabetes is a healthy lifestyle. Your dietician will advise you of the dietary changes required. Patients with this disorder, not uncommonly require treatment with medicines such as Metformin and sulphonylureas. Newer agents are continually being developed and being incorporated into treatment algorithms. 
Patients with type 2 diabetes that are not adequately controlled on oral medication, may also require treatment with insulin. This may be administered once or more times per day. Precise insulin regimes are tailored individually. Some newer agents such as Exenatide are also administered through injections. Exenatide can aid weight loss and is not a form of insulin.
Prognosis
Well controlled diabetes has a good prognosis. Poorly controlled diabetes in the longer term may be associated with disorders affecting the eyes, kidneys, nerves and brain. Poorly controlled diabetes may thus reduce the quality of life as well as survival. It is therefore important that patients with diabetes attend regular appointments to ensure good control is being achieved and that any complications are being detected and managed appropriately.
LINKS    

Diabetes UK
European Association for the Study of Diabetes
American Diabetes Association
 
 

 

 

APPOINTMENTS :   ++44 (0)7733  595 617